One of the key questions in Civil-Military Relations (CMR) theory is: under what conditions will the military intervene in the domestic politics of the nation? Most scholars agree with the theory of objective civilian control of the military, which focuses on the separation of civil and military institutions, focusing on the US case. By contrast, concordance theory offers both an institutional and cultural framework for explaining domestic military intervention, emphasizing agreement among three partners: the political elites, the military and the citizenry.
Rebecca Schiff examines four indicators of concordance:
If agreement occurs among the three partners with respect to the four indicators, domestic military intervention is less likely to occur. Here this theory is applied to six international historical cases studies: US, post-Second World War period; American Post-Revolutionary Period (1790-1800); Israel (1980-90); Argentina (1945-55); India post-Independence and 1980s; Pakistan (1958-69). Concordance theory offers a better explanation for predicting domestic military intervention than traditional theories and will be a valuable addition to the CMR literature.
The Military and Domestic Politics will be of much interest to advanced students of civil-military relations, military sociology, political science and US politics.
This much-needed volume is an edited collection of primary sources that document the history of bilingual education in U.S. public schools during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Part I of the volume examines the development of dual-language programs for immigrants, colonized Mexicans, and Native Americans during the nineteenth century. Part II considers the attacks on bilingual education during the Progressive-era drive for an English-only curriculum and during the First World War. Part III explores the resurgence of bilingual activities, particularly among Spanish speakers and Native Americans, during the interwar period and details the rise of the federal government's involvement in bilingual instruction during the post-WWII decades. Part IV of the volume examines the recent campaigns against bilingual education and explores dual-language practices in today's classrooms. A compilation of school reports, letters, government documents, and other primary sources, this volume provides rich insights into the history of this very contentious educational policy and practice and will be of great interest to historians and language scholars, as well as to educational practitioners and policymakers.
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