Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are not necessarily acquired as entire systems. They are often assembled from parts and materials, many of which are dual-use'i.e., of both commercial and military utility. Often, suppliers of these components do not ask who their customers are or inquire about the intended application. This has for a long time been the Achilles' heel of well-intentioned nonproliferation conventions. The answer lies in more stringent export controls of weapons-related technologies.In this eye-opening collection of essays, sponsored by the Center for International Trade and Security at the University of Georgia (USA), a group of outstanding experts in the nonproliferation field report on the efforts of five leading supplier countries'the United States, France, Russia, China, and India'to implement export controls on weapons and sensitive technologies used for producing WMD.The book is both reassuring and alarming in its very precise survey and analysis of export control regimes. At most national levels, regulation is rapidly making firms more accountable, and more industries are routinely implementing internal compliance programs. However, these advances are in a neck-to-neck race with intangible methods of transferring information, corporations with no national allegiance, and competition among international suppliers.Based on in-depth research'each of the contributors spent considerable time conducting interviews with government officials and other policy experts, observing policy making and implementation, and gathering empirical data'this detailed and thought-provoking book will be of great value to all concerned with security objectives for the twenty-first century.
Using organisational economics theory, the author develops a conceptual framework for analysing the effectiveness and efficiency of public services delivery. In applying the framework to case studies of export support organisations in Germany and the UK , the research establishes the causal links between organisational structures and outputs. The decisive variables are knowledge and incentives of the actors, and adaptability of the organisation. Since there are trade-offs between the variables, the findings help to explain why one organisation may be different from, but equally effective and efficient as another, and why, despite ongoing re-structuring of public and private sector organisations, no panacea for an effective and efficient organisation has been found. The analytical framework also provides a means for examining existing organisations and blueprints of future organisations, allowing for conclusions about improvability and the implications of change.
In the 5th century, the Indian mathematician Aryabhata wrote a small but famous work on astronomy in 118 verses called the Aryabhatiya. Its second chapter gives a summary of Hindu mathematics up to that point, and 200 years later, the Indian astronomer Bhaskara glossed that chapter. This volume is a literal English translation of Bhaskara's commentary complete with an introduction.
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