The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines the key political, social, and economic rights of EU citizens and residents under EU law. In its present form, it was approved in 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers, and the European Commission. However, its legal status remained uncertain until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in December 2009. The Charter obliges the EU to act and legislate consistently with the Charter, and enables the EU's courts to strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter applies to EU Member States when they are implementing EU law, but does not extend the competences of the EU beyond the competences given to it in the treaties. Written by experts from several EU Member States, this commentary on the Charter - the first in English - provides an authoritative but succinct statement of how the Charter impacts EU law, domestic law, and international law. Following the conventional article-by-article approach, each commentator offers an expert view of how each article is either already being interpreted in the courts, or is likely to be interpreted. Each commentary is referenced to the case law and is augmented with extensive references to further reading. Six cross-cutting introductory chapters explain the Charter's institutional anchorage, its relationship to the Fundamental Rights Agency, its interaction with other parts of international human rights law, the enforcement mechanisms, extraterritorial scope, and the all-important 'Explanations.'
Love cats and have 3 minutes to spare? Your favorite felines have a lot to teach you about life, love, and everything in between. You will find the spiritual pick-me-up and humorous, story-based insights you desire in3-Minute Devotions for a Cat Lover's Heart. Each of these 180 insightful readings is written specifically for your cat-loving, introspective heart and packs a powerful dose of comfort, encouragement, and inspiration. A true reminder that there's more to life than lounging in the sunniest spot of the house or selecting the best windowsill for bird-watching.
Due to increasing requests and use, third party reproduction has received much public and professional attention-from medical and psychological considerations to legislative and religious bodies. Egg and sperm donation, gestational surrogacy, and embryo donation are procedures that have been utilized since the mid 1980s; over 80 percent of In Vitro Fertilization programs in the United States currently offer egg donation and gestational surrogacy. Over the past six years, utilization of egg donation has increased 17 percent and gestational surrogacy has increased 33 percent. As these procedures have evolved, the medical, legal, psychological and ethical complexities have increased considerably. It is imperative that individuals involved with third party reproduction be aware of the most current and challenging issues associated with this practice. Aimed at physicians, trainees, psychologists, nurses and social workers whose practices may include patients considering third party reproduction, the intent of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the many aspects of third party reproduction and to help all those involved with the field to better understand it from various viewpoints. Cases will be presented and current legislation will also be reviewed.
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